El Menya is the present name of the district situated 240 km to the south of Cairo on the west bank of the Nile. The word El Menya is originally derived from the Ancient Egyptian word “mnˁt” or the Nurse of Khufu, as it was believed that King Khufu, of the fourth Dynasty, was brought up there.
In Ancient times, El Menya district was divided into 3 or sometimes 5 Nomes, and these change according to the different periods of history as the Nomes of Egypt varied from: 38 to 44 Nomes.
These Nomes were 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th and the 19th Nomes. The most important of these were the 15th, 16th, 17th.
The Hare Nome (tꜣ wnt or wnỉ): this Nome carries the number 15, its capital was called ḥmn later which was altered until it became el Ashmonien nowadays.
The Antelope (Oryx) Nome (mꜣ ḥd): it carries the number 16 Hebenu was it capital was its Arabic name is EL Kom El Ahmar.
The Jackal Nome (ỉnpwt): it carries the number 17. It is situated to the North of the Antelope Nome in ElQuis.
The necropolis of Al Menya extends from Sharona in the North to Itlidem in the South. It contains tombs belonging to the second and third Dynasty, situated on the far Northern side, and tombs of the 5th and 6th Dynasty situated on the far Southern side, and these two groups are the oldest tombs in the necropolis. Between these 2 groups lie the tombs of Beni Hassan, which date back to the middle kingdom. The necropolis also contains tombs that date back to the reign of king Akhenaton and are located in tell El Amarna, and also contains Greco-Roman tombs that are mainly located at Tuna El Gebal.
Therefore the most important Archaeological Sites in El Menya are tombs of Bani Hassan, tombs of Tell El Amarna, El Ashmonien, and necropolis of Tuna El Gebal.