The Pyramid of Meidum was formerly thought to be built by Huni, but is now believed to be constructed by Senefru.
Senefru’s Pyramid at Meidum: It was the first pyramid to have a square ground plan and was intended to be the first that was geometrically ”true”. To achieve the true pyramid shape, loose stones were added to the steps before the whole monument was encased in white Tura limestone. The loose stones eventually collapsed due to the lack of bonding between them, revealing the original stepped core of the superstructure.
In its present condition the monument resembles a high rectangular stepped tower rather than a pyramid. It preserves only three of its tall steps rising to a height of about 65 m at a steep angle of 74 degrees.
The transition to the true pyramid:
This architectural development was the outcome of new funerary believes, according to which the more earthly and primitive stepped shape was rejected in favor of the more “heavenly” theoretical (imaginary) form (that is the true pyramid).
Like Djoser’s pyramid, the pyramid of Meidum attained its final form after undergoing a number of transformations:
The preliminary building may have resembled a mastaba with a square base or it may have been a small step pyramid.
The first ascertainable form of the superstructure is that of a seven-stepped pyramid (stage 1). This pyramid was chieved by constructing a central tower-like building.
When the seven-stepped pyramid had been completed, a considerable enlargement was undertaken, thereby converting it into a pyramid with 8 steps.
When the new step had reached the level of the old, a number of courses of blocks were laid across both steps to bond the 2 structures together (stage 2). What had been the platform at the top of the seven-stepped pyramid became the 7th step and the height of the pyramid was raised by about 45 by about 45 feet. Again the material used was local stone cased with Tura limestone, which was dressed where it was exposed.
Finally, the steps were filled in with a packing of local stone, and the whole was overlaid with a smooth facing of Tura Limestone. By this mean the monument was transformed into a huge true pyramid (stage 3).
Intemal Design of the pyramid:
The entrance to the pyramid at each stage of its development was in the northern face. There is a corridor leads downwards, first through the core of the superstructure and then into the substructure. At a distance of about 190 feet from the entrance, the gradient (incline) ceases and the corridor continues on a flat surface for a further 31 feet. Near the bottom of the gradient there is a pit in the floor, but its purpose is not apparent. Beyond the pit there may have been a wooden door.
Two recesses open out of the sides of the flat level section of the corridor, the first on the east and the second on the west. The purpose of these recesses is also obscure. They were probably intended for storing during the construction of the pyramid.
At the end of the corridor a vertical shaft leads upwards to the floor of the burial chamber at its northern east corner.
The burial chamber was built partly in the rock but mainly in the core of the superstructure. This is probably due to the fact that the ground was raised when transferring the pyramid into a true one. It is built entirely of limestone and has a roof in the form of a corbel vault.
Recently French and Egyptian archaeologists, equipped with a fibber-optic endoscope have discovered two previously unknown chambers with corbelled roofs above the recesses of the flat corridor and a tunnel.